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ZHI Hai,LIN Pengfei,ZHANG Rong-Hua,CHAI Fei,LIU Hailong. 2019. Salinity effects on the 2014 warm “Blob” in the Northeast Pacific. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 38(9):24-34
Salinity effects on the 2014 warm “Blob” in the Northeast Pacific
盐度对变化2014年东北太平洋“暖泡”的作用
Received:October 03, 2018??
DOI:10.1007/s13131-019-1450-2
Key words:warm “Blob”??mixed layer depth??surface and subsurface salinity anomalies
中文关键词:??暖泡??混合层深度??海洋表层和次表层盐度异常
基金项目:The National Key Research and Development Program for Developing Basic Sciences under contract Nos 2016YFC1401601 and 2016YFC1401401; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41376026, 41690122, 41690120 and 41475101; the NSFC-Shandong Joint Fund for Marine Science Research Centers under contract No. U1406401; the NSFC Innovative Group Grant under contract No. 41421005; the Taishan Scholarship.
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
ZHI Hai?College of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China??
LIN Pengfei?State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
College of Earth Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China?
Linpf@mail.iap.ac.cn?
ZHANG Rong-Hua?Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China??
CHAI Fei?State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Hangzhou 310012, China
School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono 04469-5706, USA?
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LIU Hailong?State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
College of Earth Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China?
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Abstract:
??????A significant strong, warm "Blob" (a large circular water body with a positive ocean temperature anomaly) appeared in the Northeast Pacific (NEP) in the boreal winter of 2013-2014, which induced many extreme climate events in the US and Canada. In this study, analyses of the temperature and salinity anomaly variations from the Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) data provided insights into the formation of the warm "Blob" over the NEP. The early negative salinity anomaly dominantly contributed to the shallower mixed layer depth (MLD) in the NEP during the period of 2012-2013. Then, the shallower mixed layer trapped more heat in the upper water column and resulted in a warmer sea surface temperature (SST), which enhanced the warm "Blob". The salinity variability contributed to approximately 60% of the shallowing MLD related to the warm "Blob". The salinity anomaly in the warm "Blob" region resulted from a combination of both local and nonlocal effects. The freshened water at the surface played a local role in the MLD anomaly. Interestingly, the MLD anomaly was more dependent on the local subsurface salinity anomaly in the 100-150 m depth range in the NEP. The salinity anomaly in the 50-100 m depth range may be linked to the anomaly in the 100-150 m depth range by vertical advection or mixing. The salinity anomaly in the 100-150 m depth range resulted from the eastward transportation of a subducted water mass that was freshened west of the dateline, which played a nonlocal role. The results suggest that the early salinity anomaly in the NEP related to the warm "Blob" may be a precursor signal of interannual and interdecadal variabilities.
中文摘要:
??????2013-2014年北半球冬季的东北太平洋(NEP)出现一个明显的强的暖泡(一个大的圆形水体,海洋温度异常为正),在美国和加拿大引发了许多极端气候事件。本研究中,利用对实时海洋ARGO数据中对温度和盐度异常变化进行分析,对暖泡的形成提供了解释。在2012-2013年期间,前期负盐度异常主要导致了NEP中混合层厚度较浅(MLD),较浅的混合层使更多的热量滞留在上层水体中,导致海水表面温度(SST)升高,从而增强了温水团。盐度变化导致与暖团有关的大约60%的MLD变浅。同时发现暖泡区盐度异常是由局部效应和非局部效应共同作用的结果:海洋表层淡水在MLD异常中起局部作用,在NEP的100-150 m深度范围内,MLD异常更依赖于局部次表层盐度异常。50-100 m深度范围内的盐度异常可通过垂直平流或混合作用与100-150 m深度范围内的盐度异常密切相关。100-150 m深度范围内的盐度异常是由日期变更线以新生的淡水团潜沉至次变层俯向东运移造成的,对暖泡起到非局域性作用。结果表明,与暖团相关的NEP早期盐度异常可能是年际和年代际变化的前兆信号。
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